Guidelines & Recommendations
ABSTRACT DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
I. The work must be submitted exclusively in English.
II. Document should be:
• Written in Microsoft Word software (.doc/.docx format);
• Font Times New Roman, standard, size 14;
• Margins 2 cm from all four sides.
• Single spacing;
• No footers or any additional design.
III. Title of the article:
Title: Must be informative, specific, short, clear, concise, and unambiguous reflect the paper's contents. It should not exceed 150 characters or 20 words.
• The names of authors and their affiliations should be given.
• First name, initial(s) of the middle name(s) and Family name of each author should be written.
Department(s) and institution(s):
• All the authors have the address declared;
• It should be made clear which address relates to which author;
• The corresponding author should be identified with an asterisk (*).
When there are two or more authors and they belong to more than one affiliation, the connection between each author and his or her affiliation should be indicated by superscripts 1, 2, 3… placed after each author’s name and before each affiliation.
Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided.
IV. Language and grammar:
• Uniformly English
• Abbreviations spelt out in full for the first time.
• Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out.
• Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out.
V. The Abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions.
The Abstract should not exceed 3500 characters excluding title information.
Complete sentences, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense.
The conclusions and recommendations not found in the text of the manuscript should not be given in the abstract.
Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided.
VI. The Abstract includes following parts:
Essentially this section must introduce the subject and briefly say how the idea for research originated.
Give a concise background of the study.
Do not review literature extensively but provide the most recent work that has a direct bearing on the subject.
Justification for research aims and objectives must be clearly mentioned without any ambiguity.
Cited bibliography (from Introduction to Discussion):
(Surname et al., 2016, for three or more authors)
For an author: i.e. “…the existence of specific biomarkers for certain diseases (Niki, 2014)”
For two authors “…a chemical entity that has been recently published (Lowe and Ugle, 2014).”
For three or more authors: “…a chemical entity that has been recently published in some studies (Polidori et al., 2013; Shah et al., 2014)”.
2. The purpose of the study.
3. Materials and Methods.
This section should deal with the materials used and the methodology (how the work was carried out).
The procedure adopted should be described in sufficient details to allow the experiment to be interpreted and repeated by the readers, if desired.
The number of subjects, the number of groups, the study design, sources of drugs with dosage regimen or instruments used, statistical methods and ethical aspects must be mentioned under the section.
The data collection procedure must be described. If a procedure is a commonly used, giving a previously published reference would suffice.
If a method is not well known (though previously published) it is better to describe it briefly.
Give explicit descriptions of modifications or new methods so that the readers can judge their accuracy, reproducibility and reliability.
Statistical analysis: The variation of data should be expressed in terms of the standard error of mean (S.E.M) or the standard deviation (S.D.), along with the number of observations (n). The details of statistical tests used and the level of significance should be stated.
If more than one test is used it is important to indicate which groups and parameters have been subjected to which test.
The results should be stated concisely without comments.
Efforts should be made to avoid jargon, to spell out all non-standard abbreviations the first time they are mentioned and to present the contents of the study as clearly and concisely as possible.
Results should be presented in logical sequence in the text with appropriate reference to tables and/or figures.
The data given in tables or figures should not be repeated in the text.
The same data should not be presented in both tabular and graphic forms.
Simple data may be given in the text itself instead of figures or tables.
Avoid discussions and conclusions in the results section.
Discussion: This section should deal with the interpretation, rather than recapitulation of results. It is important to discuss the new and significant observations in the light of previous work. Discuss also the weaknesses or pitfalls in the study. New hypotheses or recommendations can be put forth. Avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data. Repetition of information given under Introduction and Results should be avoided.
Conclusions contain essentially the 'take-home' message of a paper.
Conclusions are not an extension of the discussion or a summary of the results.
Authors are advised to list important implications of their work in form of a paragraph.
Conclusions must not contain references to the cited literature.
At least three and not more than six in alphabetical order will be listed in English, which will help readers or indexing agencies in cross-indexing the study.
The words found in title need not be given as key words.
Use terms from the latest Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus.
A more general term may be used if a suitable MeSH term is not available.
All photographs, graphs and diagrams should be referred to as a 'Figure' and they should be numbered consecutively in Arabic letters (1, 2, etcetera). Multi-part figures ought to be labeled with lower case letters (a, b, etcetera). Please insert keys and scale bars directly in the figures. Relatively small text and great variation in text sizes within figures should be avoided as figures are often reduced in size. Figures may be sized to fit approximately within the column(s) of the journal. Provide a detailed legend (without abbreviations) to each figure, refer to the figure in the text and note its approximate location in the margin. Please place the legends in the manuscript after the references.
Each figure must be numbered and a short descriptive caption must be provided. A computer drawn figure with good contrast is acceptable. Sometimes, raw data for graphs may be required in Excel sheet when the article is accepted for publication. Graphic files for diagrams and figures may be converted to *.tiff, *.jpg, *.gif format. These files should not exceed 2 MB in size. Figure legends should have not more than 40 words. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.
Each table should be numbered consecutively in Arabic letters (1, 2, etcetera). In tables, footnotes are preferable to long explanatory material in either the heading or body of the table. Such explanatory footnotes, identified by superscript letters, should be placed immediately below the table. Please provide a caption (without abbreviations) to each table, refer to the table in the text and note its approximate location in the margin.